China’s Air Quality Evolution: From Striking Progress to Ongoing Challenges
The Air Quality Life Index from the University of Chicago’s Energy Policy Institute (EPIC) reveals a remarkable 42.3% reduction in air pollution levels in China between 2013 and 2021. According to the report, if this trend continues, it could extend the average Chinese citizen’s life expectancy by 2.2 years. Christa Hasenkopf, director of air quality programs at EPIC, described the progress as outstanding and rapid over a single decade.
The pivotal moment in China’s fight against air pollution occurred in autumn 2013 when the State Council released the “Air pollution prevention and control action plan.” Premier Li Keqiang emphasized the need to combat pollution with the same determination as the war on poverty. Subsequent initiatives, including the “Three-year plan on defending the blue sky,” expanded air quality management targets to more cities.
The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, historically China’s most polluted, witnessed a 53% reduction in airborne particulate concentrations between 2013 and 2021. Notably, the region’s leading group on air pollution control disbanded in October 2022, underscoring the success of control measures.
However, despite significant progress, the Air Quality Life Index still ranks China’s air quality as the 13th worst globally. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 in China is six times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline, affecting 99.9% of the population. Particulate pollution now ranks as the fifth-largest factor limiting life expectancy in China.
The Ministry of Ecology and Environment (MEE) reported that almost one-third of China’s cities fell short of air quality standards at the end of 2022. Pollutant emissions remain high, and air quality heavily depends on pollution dispersal in the atmosphere.
As of 2023, it remains uncertain whether China will sustain its air quality improvements amid increased pressure for economic growth. Economic development often conflicts with efforts to combat air pollution, as demonstrated by unannounced inspections in February 2023 that revealed issues in pollution management at businesses.
While China faces new challenges in maintaining air quality gains, including the impact of climate change, efforts continue to fine-tune pollutant management across the country. However, the diminishing returns of end-of-pipe treatment and the effects of climate change pose significant hurdles.
Climate change exacerbates air pollution challenges by adding pollutants and hindering atmospheric dispersion conditions. Increased sandstorms in northern China, linked to desertification in Mongolia, highlight the interconnectedness of climate change and pollution. Climate-induced atmospheric stagnation, characterized by low wind speeds, further complicates pollution dispersion.
A study from Tsinghua University predicts that climate change will lead to more frequent atmospheric stagnation in China, potentially increasing haze conditions. If pollutant emissions remain at current levels, the study anticipates a rise in severe pollution days in key cities, exacerbating health risks.
Efforts to manage air quality in China face new complexities under a changing climate, requiring comprehensive strategies to address emerging challenges. As Ruan Qingyuan notes, the overall situation is not optimistic, and climate change will introduce new hurdles in managing ozone pollution.
To tackle air pollution comprehensively, China should leverage its commitment to carbon reduction, as outlined in President Xi Jinping’s goals of carbon peaking before 2030 and carbon neutrality before 2060. The “Synergetic road map for carbon neutrality and clean air in China” emphasizes the benefits of simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions. Achieving carbon goals by 2030 could result in a significant reduction in major air pollutant emissions and an increase in the number of Chinese cities meeting air quality standards.
In addition to mitigating climate change, establishing a trading market for air pollutant emissions, inspired by China’s successful carbon market, could offer a more efficient and sustainable approach. This market-based strategy has proven effective in other regions, such as India’s emissions trading market for particulate pollution.
Despite China’s significant strides in reducing air pollution, continued progress is essential to reach the WHO’s safe air pollution concentrations. The challenges posed by economic pressures, climate change, and the intricacies of pollution management necessitate ongoing efforts and innovative solutions to secure cleaner air and improved public health.
AirVentec China 2024 – Where Innovation Meets Action in the Pursuit of Cleaner Air
For those eager to delve into the latest advancements and solutions in combating air pollution, mark your calendars for AirVentec China, set to take place from June 3-5, 2024, at the prestigious National Exhibition and Convention Center. This event promises a unique opportunity to explore cutting-edge technologies, engage with industry experts, and gain insights into the forefront of air quality innovation. With a diverse range of exhibitors and thought-provoking discussions, AirVentec China aims to inspire and empower individuals, businesses, and policymakers alike to contribute actively to the ongoing global effort for cleaner, healthier air.